Pozen notes the tension, especially in law firms, between billable hours and perceived face time in an office, and true productivity. He says the notion that bodily presence is a sign of productivity is a remnant of the industrial age, when people worked on assembly lines. This makes no sense for “knowledge workers,” who should be judged based on the value they create rather than the time it takes to reach goals. Here Pozen puts a challenge to managers: “If employees need to stay late in order to curry favor with the boss, what motivation do they have to get work done during normal business hours?” Pozen says workers should be judged by results, not hours. Do that for yourself, he says, and your boss should come around.